• Last 15 days Preparation Tips for UPTET 2021 Exam

    Going by the latest notification released by the UP government, the UPTET exam is expected to be held on February 28th, 2021 or thereabouts. The online application window will open soon as well. 

    The UPTET exam comprises of two categories, namely, Primary School Teachers [Class Ist to Vth] and Upper Primary Level Teacher [Class VIth to Class VIIIth] at state schools in Uttar Pradesh. This article will list down some crucial UPTET preparation tips that will help you give the right direction to your UPTET preparation strategy. 

    UPTET Preparation: Exam Pattern

    There are five sections in Paper 1 of the UPTET 2021 syllabus and four in Paper 2, carrying a combined total of 150 questions and 150 marks. To attempt the question paper, you will be allotted 150 minutes. Further, in UPTET Paper 2, you have to appear for Science and Mathematics/Social Sciences for 60 marks in place of Mathematics and Environmental Studies. 





    Child Development & Pedagogy





    150 minutes




    Environmental Studies



    Language-1 [Hindi]



    Language-2 [English/Sanskrit/Urdu]







    UPTET Study Plan: Child Development & Pedagogy [CDP]

    • Topics: Inclusive education and understanding children with special needs, Development and relationship with learning, Principles of children’s development, Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds, Learning & Pedagogy, How Children Think and learn, Motivation and learning, learning factors [personal & environmental], etc.
    • This section is the crux of the exam in that it requires you to understand the tasks and challenges faced by the teacher in the act of teaching itself as well as teaching different subjects.
    • Give special focus to learning theories and principles, factors of learning, inclusive education and like. Out of 30, you must aim at 22-24 questions correctly.
    • UPTET preparation book: UPTET Child Development and Pedagogy by Kiran Publication,


    UPTET Study Plan: Mathematics

    • Topics: Ratio & Proportion, Functions & Linear Equations, Number System, Speed & Distance, Simplification, Percentages, Series, Simple & Compound Interest, Probability, Data Interpretation, Geometry, Permutation, Combination, Shapes, Spatial Understanding, Logical thinking, Language of mathematics, Understanding Children’s thinking styles & patterns, Community Mathematics, Problems of teaching, etc. 
    • Mathematics is made up of core quant and teaching portions, which is tested in Paper 1 as well as Paper 2 [Science & mathematics].
    • In the last 15 days, focus on fundamental topics such as ratio & proportion, number system, linear equations, series, percentages, simplification, etc. which are asked directly or come into play in other questions.
    • For the teaching part, think like a teacher and study the problems students typically face while studying Mathematics, whether it is fear or apprehension, lack of explanation on part of teachers and so on. Once you understand, you will start to better appreciate the topics.
    • UPTET preparation book: A Complete Resource for CTET: Mathematics and Pedagogy by Pearson Education,


    UPTET Study Plan: Social Sciences [For Paper 2]

    • Topics: History-Ancient History [Early Societies, Culture and Science, etc.], Medieval History [Kings & Kingdoms, Architecture, etc.], Modern History [Colonialism, Tribal Societies, 1857 Revolt, Nationalist movement, India after 1947, etc.], Geography- Earth, Air, Water, Humans, Resources, Agriculture, etc. Social & Political Life- Democracy, Media, Gender, Judiciary, Social Justice, etc. Pedagogy-Nature & Concept of Social Sciences, Critical Thinking & Analysis, Problems & teaching Social Sciences, Evaluation, Challenges, etc. 
    • If you have opted for Social Sciences [S.Sc] in Paper 2, don’t leave the S.Sc UPTET 2021 syllabus for the last. In the last 15 days, you must only refer to important events, major dates and anniversaries, Constitution, challenges faced when teaching social sciences and other such topics.
    • Having moderate difficulty, you must aim for at least 40-45 questions correct.
    • Use creative learning techniques such as flow charts, puzzles, quizzes, diagrams, mind maps, etc. to better engage with the text and remember more vividly. Also, you can take help of UPTET preparation online resources such as online assessment and feedback sessions, full-length mock tests, etc.
    • Develop your own opinion on social issues in a scholarly and informed way.


    • UPTET preparation book: CTET Success Master Paper-II Teacher Selection for Class VI-VIII Social Studies/Science 2019 by Arihant Publication


    UPTET Study Plan: Language [Hindi] and Language [English/Sanskrit//Urdu]

    • Topics: English grammar, Reading Comprehension, Language Development Pedagogy, Principles and challenges of Language teaching, language skills, Teaching-learning materials, Remedial teaching, Evaluating language comprehension & proficiency etc.
    • Rather than jumbled words and error detection, you will much more thoroughly tested on core grammar portions like parts of speech, articles, gender, punctuation, etc. in both language papers.
    • The Reading Comprehension passage section is the most scoring and yet many students fail to capitalize on this opportunity. In the final few days, the best UPTET preparation strategy is to attempt diverse reading passages in a timed manner. Hone your skills of gauging the Passage’s Theme, Author’s Idea, arguments and counter-arguments and conclusion, among others in the least time possible and whether it is written in rhetorical, descriptive, narrative or conversational tone.
    • UPTET preparation book: UPTET English Language By Pearson Publication – Geeta Sahni,


    UPTET Study Plan: Science [For Paper 2]

    • Topics: Food [Sources, Components, etc.], Materials, Moving Things, People and Ideas, Living World, How Thing Work [Magnets, Electricity], Natural Resources & Phenomena, Science Pedagogy [Understanding and Appreciating Science, Nature of Science, Observation & Discovery, Innovation, Evaluation, Problems, etc. 
    • In the last 15 days, the best favoured UPTET preparation strategy for this section is to stick to the NCERT text for general science topics. Its simple language and easy-to-understand content will surely help refresh your memory better.
    • For the pedagogy section, solve short tests which go over section one by one. Also, refer to UPTET preparation online material like docs, eBooks, tutorials, etc.
    • UPTET preparation book: A Complete Resource for CTET (Language I): English and Pedagogy by Pearson Publication

    UPTET Study Plan: Environmental Studies

    • Topics: Scope & significance of EVS, Importance of environmental education, Teaching Approaches, Relationships, Family and Foods, work and play, Components of environment and other major terms, pedagogical issues, practical projects, discussion, etc. 
    • This is one of the most scoring sections of all. Go through NCERT EVS books in the last 15 days at least once. As multiple topics have been clubbed together, you may find a mix of Science and Social Science.
    • Teaching the importance of environment and preserving it cannot be stressed more and yet you must find interesting ways to help students. Focus on keywords such as sustainability, endangered, vulnerable and extinct, the ecosystem, rainfall, climate change, types of soil, etc.


    • UPTET preparation book: CTET & TETs Environmental Studies & Pedagogy by Arihant Publications


    Over-all UPTET Preparation Strategy for the last 15 days

    • Attempt 1-2 full-length mock tests only until the 13th Leave it after that.
    • Focus on formulae in Maths
    • Don’t forget to carry important documents.
    • Leave 8-10 minutes in the end for revision.
    • Sleep adequately the previous week.
    • Reach before time.
    • Keep a cool head, trust yourself and don’t panic.
  • How is it possible to measure the effectiveness of an employee training program?

    Training program calls for significant investment in terms of money and time. For this reason measuring returns on training is of paramount importance. When you measure training through scientific methods, it is termed as training effectiveness. Who and when to train are the parameters of this training module.

    With each passing day a new innovation occurs in the market, considering the competitive nature of the market. A new change is the main reason in terms of catalyst for the aims along with objectives of an organization. There comes a definite need to outline the skills of an employee in terms of competencies aligned with their business objectives.

    The organizations go about the task by providing training to their employees. The task of recurring training along with development teaches the new employees on how to keep up with the expectations of an organization. In fact it even provides the existing employees on widening their knowledge base. If you feel that training is expensive, then you are not aware what ignorance costs.

    The main problem that arises is training is viewed as a cost and not an investment. The art of learning and upgrading skills of your employees makes a degree of sense. An interesting aspect is that it is a recurring process right from day one. In a rapid changing economy an organization need to explore various ways by which they can provide training to the employees and whether they are termed to be effective to keep up with employee growth and even to meet up with the business objectives.

    How to measure training effectiveness and what are the methods organizations go on to follow

    The term training is welcomed with a reasoning high when you discuss it in a training room. The main objective of the training sessions or any form of program is to enhance the skills, execution along with results. But the manner of training tends to vary across organizations depending upon the target audience, employees and products. Nearly 68 % of employees feel that training along with development work out to be important company policies

    • One of the first steps in a training session is to identify the target audience and outline the specific kind of training that is needed by them. The companies are going to take into account the job role and a one on one assessment is created for all the roles.
    • Once you go on to figure out the identification, then training is provided by a host of methods. This can be group discussion, lectures online and offline etc.
    • The last but perhaps the most crucial aspect is to measure the effectiveness of the training programs. Most of the companies go on to refrain or adopt ineffective ways where merely they record the reaction of the trainees and something on similar lines that has less effectiveness.

    Sometimes the above ways of outlining facts is not in line with the objectives of a business. It might seem to be a waste of time and resources and you might not be aware that the audience that you are giving training is the targeted one or not. Even you might not be aware of the suitable content that is to be provided for training. Rest assured of the fact that the program is successful in order to engage the employees or not. A superior training program goes on to measure the effectiveness in terms of ROI when large investments are being made by the company.

    All these steps are considered to be traditional ones and do not have a lot of impact on the employees. Yes good training programs are there but some of them do not seem to be effective. For this reason nearly 40 % of the employees go on to leave their jobs within one year of training. The onus would be to train your employees with effective training programs or simply go with the flow. No point to invest in something that is not going to assure you any success.

    Be it a well-established business or a new set up they cannot turn a blind eye to training as it is going to help an organization grow and remain competitive. But there is no one size approach and the training program depends upon the effectiveness and the objectives of the company in question.

    Why, who and what to train?

    Each one of us is not perfect and has certain flaws. Most of the employees are known to have some dark areas in their work field for which they need suitable training. Any assessment should clearly specific the reason for training for they are going to point upon deficiencies that need to be worked upon

    Now all employees do not have to be trained. Even all of them are not going to need the same level of training. The assessment is going to provide a full-fledged report on the individuals who might need training.

    A person might have great product knowledge but lack in terms of presentation skills as they cannot suit the requirements of an organization. As a manager you need to have an idea on what training is all about and which are competencies that are needed. The assessment should be clearly able to specify the areas where the employees are going to need training.

    Some of the organizations still believe in the concept of theory tests as far as training their employees are concerned. But a customized assessment test based on the needs of a company is a viable solution. Though in this digital world of today everyone prefers online assessments where things done with a computer and an internet connection

    They are comprehensive assignments that go on to outline the personality of an employer. You design the job assignments as per roles in a company. The candidates are able to focus on their strength and are able to pinpoint the areas of weakness. Research supports the fact that companies who provide training reported 24 % higher profits.

  • JAC Board Results Matric Exam Results

    Result is announced by Jharkhand Academic Council for 10th class under JAC Board 10th Result 2016. Who have given examination for 10th class can check result by pressing given link given below under JAC Board Results 2016.

    Click here to chheck JAC Board 10th Result 2016 through this direct Official Link.

  • Goa Board HSSC Date Sheet Time Table

    Time Table is announced by Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education for HSSC Class Student who are preparing to give examination in next month under Goa Board HSSC Time Table. We brought HSSC Date Sheet for all student, now they can see and make their preparation accordingly, you can download your schedule by checking below article prepared by

    • Visit Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education website that is
    • Move to “Date Sheet of June 2016 H.S.S.C Examination” link.
    • Press the tab you are looking forward and download the exam schedule PDF format.

    Day & Date

    Subject (Code No.) and Timing

    09.30 a.m. to 12.00 noon

    09.30 a.m. to 12.00 noon

    WEDNESDAY 08/06/2016

    Secretarial Practice (654)

    English Language I (411) Marathi Language I (412)

    THURSDAY 09/06/2016

    Psychology (752)

    Computer Science (705)

    Accountancy (605)

    Physics (702)

    History (501)

    FRIDAY 10/06/2016


    Hindi Language II (424) Portuguese Language II (428)

    English Language II (421) Urdu Language II (425) French Language II (427) Sanskrit Language II (426) Marathi Language II (423) Konkani Language II (422)

    SATURDAY 11/06/2016

    Political Science (553)

    Chemistry (703)

    Business Studies (655)

    MONDAY 13/06/2016


    Mathematics (754) Mathematics & Statistics (606)

    TUESDAY 14/06/2016

    Co-operation (651)

    ·         Banking (601)

    ·         Logic (552)

    Economics (652)

    Biology (704)

    ·         Geology (706)

    Goa Board Class XII JUNE 2016 (VOCATIONAL STREAM) Date Sheet

    Day & Date


    Subject (Code No.)

    WEDNESDAY 08/06/2016

    2.30 PM TO 4.30 PM

    ·         Computer Application (233) Clothing Construction (267) Bakery (284)

    ·         Automobile Engineering-II (322)

    ·         Digital Electronics & Computers (331) Fundamental of Nursing-II (361)

    ·         Chemistry (Vocational) (291) Mathematics (Vocational) (311)

    ·         Pomology (383)

    THURSDAY 09/06/2016

    2.30 PM TO 4.30 PM

    ·         Accountancy (225)

    ·         Apparel Designing & Decoration (266) Confectionery (285)

    ·         Auto Transmission (323) Electronic Materials & Workshop Practice (332) Community Health Nursing-II (362)

    ·         Travel Formalities (357) Biology (Vocational) (292) Computer Software Application (316)

    ·         Food Production (271) Olericulture ( 384 )

    FRIDAY 10/06/2016

    2.30 PM TO 5.00 PM

    English Communication Skills (201)

    SATURDAY 11/06/2016

    2.30 PM TO 4.30 PM

    ·         Stenography (213)

    ·         Life Insurance (231) Business Communication & Advertising (252)

    ·         Fiber to Fabric and Fashion Marketing (265)

    ·         Food Science and Costing (286)

    ·         Auto Servicing & Garage Management (371)

    ·         Maternity & Child Health-II (363)

    ·         Electronic & Electrical Measurements (341)

    ·         Cost Accounting & Taxation (221)

    ·         Functional Management (244)

    ·         Introduction to the Hospitality Industry (356) Vegetable, Floriculture and Landscaping (295)

    ·         Computer Organization and Operating System(315) Applied & Consumer Electronics (333)

    ·         Food & Beverage Service (272)

    ·         Floriculture ( 385)

    MONDAY 13/06/2016

    2.30 PM TO 4.30 PM

    ·         Office Procedure & Practice (215)

    ·         General Insurance (232) Marketing Management (254)

    ·         Dyeing & Printing (264) Accommodation Operation (274)

    ·         Auto Electricals (372) Domestic & Consumer Appliances (342)

    ·         Psychology , Mental Hygiene, Mental diseases & Sociology (364)

    ·         Principles & Practice of Auditing (222)

    ·         Industrial Administration (245)

    ·         Travel Agency Operations & Ticketing (355)

    ·         Commercial Crops (294) Web Technology (317) Industrial Electronics & Instrumentation (334) Gardening & Landscaping ( 386 )

    TUESDAY 14/06/2016

    2.30 PM TO 5.00 PM

    General Foundation Course (202)

    To read about Goa Board HSSC Time Table 2016, you must check below stated Press Here


  • Opportunity for 12th Pass Fresher- Opportunity by Engineer- Get 100% Job Placement

    Amity University brought great and good opportunity for all fresher of 12th passed who have completed their Class XII to choose Amazing career by adopting Technical Sector.

    Amity is introducing Golden chance for XII passed Fresher, who wants to opt technical sector and would like to career with companies named below….

    All Top Class Multinational Companies (MNC’S) have collaboration with Amity to hire Talents like HCL Technologies, IBM, WIPRO, Sony, Amazon, Flipkart, Honda, Maruti and various other are welcoming Freshers with Engineering Degree

    About Amity….!!

    Accredited by Grade “A” by NAAC, UGC recognized, belongs to leading Education Group with 1.26 lacs students are now offering B. tech, B. Tech Specialized, M. tech. MBA and other various others courses with International Tie up with UK, Australia, Newzeland, USA, Ireland and many other..

    Make a good Decision for your Bright Future…

    • It’s time for you to decide
    • Get this chance
    • Just Submit your Form here
    • Click on Apply here for free consultation

    How to Apply for Amity University???

    Step I. Click here on Apply Button

    Step II. Just fill the online form given below, just click here…

    Step III. Once form is filled, kindly wait for counselor to call you on numebr given…

    Check about latest updates on amity university courses, amity university noida admission, amity university noida admission 2018 via

  • Sastra University Online Application- UG Application Form

    Application are invited by Sastra University for various Undergraduate and Post Graduate Courses (BA, B. Sc., LLB, BBA, B. Tech, B. Com, MCA, M. Sc, M. Com, MBA Course) under Sastra University Admission 2016. Who wish to apply for above said courses can check below article where we brought all related information like criteria of education, way to submit application, fees, deadline etc. Who are interested to apply for Sastra University Admissions can apply till June 11, 2016.

    Criteria of Education for Sastra University Courses: For Sastra University UG courses applicant should be passed in 12th or Diploma or some equivalent and for Sastra University PG courses should be passed in Graduation or similar equivalent courses.

    Fee for Sastra University Admission Form:

    • For various programmes (except B. Tech): Rs. 650/-
    • For Law and non B.Tech. programmes: Rs. 300/-

    Sastra University Courses Fees:

    Name of the Programme

    Tuition Fee Per Semester

    Sports and Unit Test fee per annum

    Development fees

    Special fees, Registration fees, Medical Exam fees, etc.

    B. Tech / M. Tech (Integrated)

    (5 % annual increase from II year)




    M. Tech






















    B.A., LL.B.(Hons.) / B.B.A., LL.B.(Hons.) / B.Com., LL.B.(Hons.)





    B.Sc. , B.B.A., B.C.A., B.Com







    Sastra University, Thanjavur – 613 401, Tamil Nadu

    Schedule for Sastra University Admission (Programme Schedule):

    Engineering (5-Year integrated) Programmes

    Applications forms Submission Last Date

    June 11, 2016

    Rank List Announcement

    Admission Counselling

    June 22,23,24 & 25 – 2016

    Classes for First Year

    July 11, 2016

    Other Programmes

    M.Tech / M.Sc – Last date for receiving filled applications forms

    June 11, 2016 (6.00 p.m.)

    M.B.A / B.Com., CA.,- Last date for receiving filled applications forms

    M.Sc – Last date for receiving filled applications forms

    M.C.A – Last date for receiving filled applications forms

    LAW – Last date for receiving filled applications forms

    Arts & Science at SRC Kumbakonam Campus

    B.Sc., BBA., BCA., B.Com., M.Com., M.Sc., M.C.A.

    June 11, 2016 (6.00 p.m.)

    Click here on Official Link to apply for Sastra University Admission 2016.


  • YMCA Admission Form for Graduate/Post Graduates- Latest Information

    Latest Information is announced by YMCA University for their upcoming dates/ Admission for YMCA Admission 2016- 17 Sessions. Who are interested to take participation in YMCA for various under Graduates/Post Graduate Courses like B.A, B.Sc, B.Com, B.Ed, M.Sc, M.A, M.Com, M.Ed, M.Phil, BBA, BCA, MBA, MCA Degree can chec below article here.

    You can download the forms and other information about examination, fees, charges for Application forms etc from YMCA website i.e. and can download other information too.

    University announced these courses in Regular as well as private terms both the ways but based upon the course these decision have been made by YMCA management. Kindly check the details more precisely before concluding the purchase of Forms.

    You can regularly visit us for latest updates on YMCA University Admission form and YMCA courses is offered. You can just subscribe us too for various latest Jobs updates  in Engineering and other Govt. Jobs, Privates Jobs Opportunities in India.

    We invite you to please write your query in our comment box if any.

  • AMU Admission Process- Courses- Application Form 2016

    Students waiting for admissions in Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) have announced the date for examination for various AMU courses which have been offered since its establishment in various disciplines. University has announced the application forms, you can read below article for AMU Admission Process and Last date go through the page.

    About Aligarh Muslim University:

    One of old university in India, good choice for various families, established in India in 1857 in Aligarh, UP. The milestone was put by Syed Ahmad Khan and running under Seventh Schedule of the Constitution at its commencement, as it comprises all religions, castes, genders and creeds.

    Offered Courses in Graduation/Post Graduation:

    BTech, B.B.S, D.S, Diploma in Engineering Senior Secondary School Certificate, BA.LL.B, MBA, MBA (IB), PGDIBF, MA (Hons), MSc. (Hons), MCom (Hons), Bed,

    Criteria of Participation:

    • 12th passed if applicant interested to take part in Graduation
    • Graduate if wish to take admission in PG

    Fees for Application: fees will be paid by DD to take admission, which will be paid in favour of Finance Officer, (AMU) Aligarh payable at Aligarh.

    You can make application submission via online or offline both modes.

    Communication Address for Offline Application Form Submission: To Admission Section, Office of the Controller of Examinations, AMU, Aligarh – 202002

    Schedule Course Wise and Examination Dates:

    Course Name

    Deadline for Form submission

    Date of Exam

    MBBS / BDS

    16th February 2016

    Tier I: 10th April 2016

    Tier II: 01st June 2016

    B. Tech

    19th February 2016

    24th April 2016

    B. Tech / B.Arch.

    BA (Honors)

    22nd February 2016

    08th May 2016

    B.Sc (Honors)


    S.S.S.C (Science)

    25th February 2016

    15th May 2016

    S.S.S.C (Hum/ Commerce)

    16th May 2016

    Dip. In Engineering

    27th April 2016


    25th February 2016

    28th May 2016


    25th May 2016


    20th February 2016

    22nd May 2016

    MA Mass Communication

    25th February 2016

    30th April 2016

    M. L. I. Sc

    28th April 2016


    26th April 2016


    02nd May 2016


    M.F.C/ M.T.A

    Diploma in Computer Shoe Design & Dev

    B.Voc  Degree in Fashion Design & Garment Tech

    B.Voc  Degree in Production Tech

    B.Voc  Degree in Polymer & Coating Tech

    25th March 2016

    13th June 2016

    To read about AMU Application Form 2016, click on Official Notification.


  • Sri Venkateswara University Graduate/ Post Graduate SVU Degree Syllabus 2016

    For Graduation and Post Graduation Sri Venkateswara University have announced syllabus under SUV Degree Courses Syllabus Notification. Who are preparing for SUV Degree courses can check Sri Venkateswara University Syllabus by our page from where you can find related updates on it.

    Sri Venkateswara University Syllabus

    M.Sc., Geology Syllabus (Semester: I)

    Crystallogralphy And Mineralogy

    Unit : I

    Elements of crystallography – Derivation of the 32 crystal classes, Hermann – Maugin symbols, Twinning in crystals, X – ray crystallography.


    General principles of optics; Refringence – Biregringence, pleochroism, Extinctions and measurements of extinction angles, optical ellipsoids (a) Fresnel’s ellipsoid and (b) Fletchers indicatrix, optic axial angle and optic sign, Interference figures – Uniaxial and Biaxial figures, and optic anomalies.

    Unit : III

    physical and optical characters and paragenesis of the following mineral groups; Olivine, pyroxene, Amphibole, Mica Structure of silicates, Isomorphism and polymorphism , Structure, Chemistry

    Unit: IV

    Structure, chemistry, physical and optical characters and paragenesis of the following mineral groups; Aluminium silicates, Granet. and Epidote. Study of the following minerals: Beryl, Apatite, Sphene, Tourmaline, Talk and Spinel, Quartz, Feldspars, Feldspathoids,



    Unit : I

    Introduction – Scope of Sedimentology. Processes of weathering – Surface processing and Rock weathering. Source of sediments.


    Classification of Clastic and Non-clastic rocks, Clastic rocks – Rudaceous rocks, Arenaceous rocks, Argillaceous rocks Non-clastic rocks – Chemical deposits and Organic deposits. Dolomites and dolomitisation.

    Unit : III

    Sedimentary textures: Grain size, Grain shape and Grain fabric Sedimentary structures: Ripples, Dunes and Cross bedding, Graded beds and Sole structures.

    Unit: IV

    Classification of sedimentary environments. Non-marine environments-Glacial, Eolian, Lacustrine and Fluvial environemtns Marine: Shelf and Deep sea sediments.



    Unit : I

    Volcanoes & Volcanism – Nature and Origin of volcanoes – Products of volcanism eruptive styles and associated land form. Volcanic Hazards and mitigation. Earthquakes and Earth’s Interior. Causes, occurrence and effects of Earthquakes. Earth’s interior according to seismic theory.

    Unit: II

    Mass wasting – Factors influencing mass wasting, types of mass movements – Recognizing and minimizing the effects of mass wasting. Plate tectonics – theory of plate tectonics – nature and origin of ocean floor, origin and shaping of continents

    Unit : III

    Geological action and resulting forms of Glaciers, wind and groundwater

    Unit: IV

    Geological action resulting landforms of River. Drainage patterns – Morphometric analysis and interpretations

    M.Sc. Animal Biotechnology (Semester: I):

    Structure And Functions Of Biomolecules

    Unit – I:


    –       (Lactose, Sucrose, Maltose) and polysaccharides (Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin).

    –       Physical and Chemical reactions of carbohydrates

    –       Analysis of carbohydrates- Qualitative and Quantitative

    –       Chemistry of carbohydrates – Definition and classification of carbohydrates.

    –       Outlines of structures and properties of important mono- (Glucose & Fructose), di-

    Unit – II

    Amino acids and Proteins

    –       Proteins and their classification, properties of proteins, determination of amino acid sequences (N and C terminus) Tertiary/quaternary structure of proteins (myoglobin/ hemoglobin model).

    –       Structural organization of proteins – Outline structures and biological functions.

    –       Protein folding and significance

    –       Chemistry of amino acids and proteins – Classification of amino acids, Structures of amino acids, Chemical reactions of amino acids.

    –       Peptide bond – Nature of peptide bond, pi/φ rotation. Ramachandran plot, Secondary structure predictions, helices and beta-sheets, Determination of primary structure

    Unit – III:


    –       Phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol, prostaglandins, leukotrienes. Lipids as Signaling molecules.

    –       Structure and functions of, heterocyclic molecules, porphyrins and vitamins.

    –       Chemistry of lipids – Classification of lipids, Properties of lipids,

    –       Outline structures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, fats and waxes

    Unit – IV

    Nucleic acids

    –       Structure, variation and properties of DNA and RNA.

    –       DNA denaturation and renaturation kinetics, Determination of DNA complexity, Hyperchromacity, Tm, cot curves and their significance

    –       Chemistry of nucleic acids – Structure of purines and pyrimidines, modified bases nucleosides and nucleotides;

    –       Properties of nitrogen bases and nucleotides


    Analytical Tools And Techniques

    Unit – I:

    Cell and its components analysis

    –       Concentration of macromolecules flash evaporation, lyophilization, pressure dialysis, reverse dialysis, hollow fiber membrane filters and reverse osmosis.

    –       Microscopic studies (principles and applications): Light, compound, phase contrast, confocal and SEM

    –       Isolation techniques – Cell disruption techniques – sonication, french press, enzymatic, non-enzymatic techniques.

    –       Isolation of proteins – salting in/out, ammonium sulphate fractionation. Nucleic acids – polar solvents precipitation. Lipids – extraction by differential solubility

    Unit – II

    Separation techniques

    –       Adsorption chromatography – principles, counter current distribution and its significance, Adsorption materials – paper, silica gel, cellulose acetate, affinity chromatography, merits and demerits –Instrumentation -TLC, GLC, HPLC.

    –       Electrophoresis – principles governing the movement of charged molecules in the electric field. Relationship of voltage, current and the mobility of biomolecules. Matrices used in electrophoresis – starch, cellulose acetate, agarose, polyacrylamide. Use of PAGE for separation of proteins, molecular mass determination. Immunoelctrophoresis, Separation of nucleic acids using agarose gel electrophoresis. Blotting techniques – western, southern and northern blotting techniques.

    –       Size- Filtration, Dialysis, principles and applications-molecular sieve chromatography principle. Determination of void volume, extension co-efficient and molecular mass of native molecules. Density- Centrifugation technique – density gradient – sucrose, cesium chloride, Determination of sedimentation co-efficient, Molecular mass.

    –       Charge- Ion exchange chromatography – Matrices – Principles of separation of charged molecules. Chromatography separations

    Unit – III:


    –       Optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) and Circular Dichroism (CD)

    –       X-ray diffraction and X-ray crystallography

    –       Characterization of biomolecules by Spectroscopy – Electromagnetic spectrum of light, simple theory of absorption of light by molecules, Beer-Lambert law, Types of detectors.

    –       UV-visible spectrophotometry, infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, fluorescence Spectroscopy, flame photometry, atomic absorption, plasma emission, mass, ESR and NMR spectrophotometry.

    Unit – IV


    –       Labeling of carbohydrates (C14 acetate), proteins (S35 methionine, I125 aminoacid) and nucleic acids (P32 dATP).

    –       Biological uses of radioisotopes, Isotope dilution techniques, Safety measures in handling radio-isotopes

    –       Radioisotope tracer techniques – Nature and types of radioactivity, half life, decay units, Preparation of labeled biological compounds,

    –       Detection and measurement of radioactivity (GM counter, scintillation counter), quench correction, Autoradiography


    Cell Biology And Genetics

    Unit – I:

    Cell and Cell membrane composition

    –       Structure and function of lysosomes, peroxisomes,

    –       Structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplast

    –       Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Plasma membrance – Molecular organization, current model and function, Cytoskelaton – microtubules, cilia and flagella, Structure and function of cytoskeleton.

    –       Structure and function of endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus,

    Unit – II

    Nucleus and Chromosome organization

    –       DNA-histone interactions – formation of chromatin fibers – Hetero/Eu chromatin – structural transition – Histone-H1-significance in regulation of expression.

    –       Nucleus – structure and function of nuclear membrane, nucleolus.

    –       Eukaryotic chromosome and its high resolution organization

    –       Polytene and lamp brush chromosomes.

    Unit – III:

    Cell division and chromosomal variations

    –       Chromosomal abnormalities – euploidy, haploidy – their fundamental and practical significance. Polypliody – induction – Aneuploidy – type and genetic significance.

    –       Regulation of eukaryotic cell cycle – Over view of cell cycle. Mutation causing cell cycle control. Meiotic process – stages, chromosome pairing, chiasma formation

    –       Mechanism of cell division – mitiotic apparatus, cytokinesis, chromosome movement – present concept

    –       Molecular mechanisms of recombination, synaptonemal complex. Nondysjunction

    –       Tumor biology – cell to cell interaction, cell adhesion, cell transformation mechanism and oncogenesis.

    Unit – IV

    Principles of genetics

    –       Mutagenesis – Types of mutations, mutagens, Molecular mechanisms of mutations, Spontaneous, induced mutations, reversion, suppression, and analysis of mutants

    –       Mendelian genetics, Linkage and gene mapping,

    –       Quantitative genetics and problems, Hardy Weinberg Law, Sex chromosomes and sex determination. Inbreeding

    –       Role of mutagenesis in evolution, chromosomal deletions, duplications, inversions.


    Microbiology And Diseases

    Unit – I:

    Introduction to Microbiology

    –       Isolation, cultivation and enumeration of microorganisms – direct and indirect methods, Maintenance of culture.

    –       Outlines of characterization and identification of common bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoa.

    –       Discovering the microbial world. Classification of micro organisms up to order level – bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa.

    –       Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. General and distinctive characteristics of the major groups of microorganism bacteria, mycoplasma, chalmidae, rickettsias, actinomycetes, fungi, algae, protozoa Prions and viruses.

    Unit – II

    Microbial nutrition, growth and regulation

    –       Control of microorganisms – principles, physical and chemical agents, Assay of antimicrobial action. Batch and continuous sterilization of media and air. Viruses – nature, cultivation and assay methods, structure, physico-chemical properties, classification, pathogenicity, Replication of viruses.

    –       Microbes of biotechnological importance – examples of bacteria, yeast, algae and viruses.

    –       Nutritional requirements to microorganisms – Mode of nutrition – phototrophy, chemotrophy – methylotrophy organotrophy, mixotrophy, saprophytic, symbiotic and parasitic, Interaction of microbes.

    –       Growth of microorganism (bacteria) – normal and biphasic growth curve, batch and continuous cultures, chemostats, shift up and shift down. Growth determination, Microbial metabolism – energy yielding and energy requiring processes.

    Unit – III:

    Microbial Genetics

    –       Horizontal transfer of genome among the microbial community – transformation, conjugation transduction – generalized transduction, specialized transduction – cotransduction.

    –       Benzer’s classical studies on II locus. Cistron complementation – Elucidation of colinearity between DNA and protein sequence. Genetics of viruses – bacteriophage, lambda, SV 40, retroviral genome (HIV), replication, lytic and lysogenic cascades.

    –       Chemical nature of gene, Concept of gene, operon, mosaic genes/split genes.

    –       Plasmids incompatibility. Classification: copy number, control and its significance. Structure and functions of insertion elements (IS) – transposable elements. Mechanism of transposition. Catabolic transposons and their significance.

    Unit – IV

    Diseases caused by microorganisms

    –       Fungal diseases: Athlets foot, Dutch Elm disease, ergotism

    –       Protozoa diseases (Protista): Malaria, Sleeping sickness, dysentery

    –       And Plant Pathogens: TMV, Rust

    –       Viral diseases: Flu, Hepatitis, Dengue fever

    –       Bacterial diseases: Cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax,

    Just visit on Official Link for Sri Venkateswara University Syllabus 2016.

  • Sambalpur University Result for BSc/ Law Graduates-

    Results is announced by Sambalpur University for the candidates who have given semester examination for Nursing B. Sc and Bachelor of Law and waiting for their results. announced results here under Sambalpur University Results 2016, which you can check by following simple procedures.

    Way to download Sambalpur University Exam Result?

    • Go to official website of Sambalpur University like
    • Click on “Latest” Tab and go to “Sambalpur University” link.
    • Check the tab available for your course and Feed your Roll Number / Name.
    • You can see your results on screen
    • Keep printout for future use.

    About Sambalpur University:

    Incorporated on 4th January 1967 by Hon’ble Chancellor at Dhanupali, Sambalpur with a rented property with offer ability of various courses. University in their area is one of prime place to take admission in Sambalpur University for higher education.

    Courses Available:

    PG Courses:

    • LLM
    • BCom
    • MBA
    • MPhil
    • MA
    • MCA
    • BSc

    Graduate Courses:

    • BA
    • Com
    • BSc
    • BCA
    • LLB
    • BBA

    Diploma Courses:

    • G Diploma course in Computer Application
    • Diploma course in Sambalpuri Studies and others

    If you wish to read more about Sambalpur University Result 2016 can check directly by click on Official Link.

    We invite our all viewers to subscribe our email services to regular email updates about job Opening directly on your email inbox free of cost.

  • AP Board Syllabus for Intermediate/SSC Free Download

    AP board Syllabus is announced by The Board Of Intermediate Education, AP and The Board Of Secondary Education, AP for SSC or Intermediate examination. Applicants who are preparing for SSC/ Intermediate are welcome to see or download free from our website. We are pleased to give latest format with updated information for AP Board Syllabus 2016 so keep continue on our web portal.

    Topics Name



    (Part I): English

    (Part II):

    *  Telugu (Old)

    *  Hindi (Old)

    *  Sanskrit (Old)

    *  French (Old)

    *  Urdu (Old)

    *  Arabic (Old)

    *  Tamil

     (Part III):

    *  English

    *  Telugu

    *  Hindi

    *  Urdu


    Mathematics IIA

    *  Algebra

    *  Complex Numbers

    *  De Moivre’s Theorem

    *  Quadratic Expressions

    *  Theory of Equations

    *  Permutations and Combinations

    *  Binomial Theorem

    *  Partial fractions

    *  Probability

    *  Measures Of Dispersion

    *  Probability

    *  Random Variables And Probability Distributions

    Mathematics IIB

    *  Coordinate Geometry

    *  Circle

    *  System of circles

    *  Parabola

    *  Ellipse

    *  Hyperbola

    *  Calculus

    *  Integration

    *  Definite Integrals

    *  Differential equations


    *  Waves

    *  Ray Optics And Optical Instruments

    *  Wave Optics

    *  Electric Charges And Fields

    *  Electrostatic Potential And Capacitance

    *  Current Electricity

    *  Moving Charges And Magnetism

    *  Magnetism And Matter

    *  Electromagnetic Induction

    *  Alternating Current

    *  Electromagnetic Waves

    *  Dual Nature Of Radiation And Matter

    *  Atoms

    *  Nuclei

    *  Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices And Simple Circuits

    *  Communication Systems


    *  Waves

    *  Ray Optics And Optical Instruments

    *  Wave Optics

    *  Electric Charges And Fields

    *  Electrostatic Potential And Capacitance

    *  Current Electricity

    *  Moving Charges And Magnetism

    *  Magnetism And Matter

    *  Electromagnetic Induction

    *  Alternating Current

    *  Electromagnetic Waves

    *  Dual Nature Of Radiation And Matter

    *  Atoms

    *  Nuclei

    *  Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices And Simple Circuits

    *  Communication Systems


    *  Solid State

    *  Solutions

    *  Electrochemistry And Chemical Kinetics

    *  Surface Chemistry

    *  General Principles Of Metallurgy

    *  P-Block Elements

    *  D And F Block Elements & Coordination Compounds

    *  Polymers

    *  Bimolecular

    *  Chemistry In Everyday Life

    *  Haloalkanes And Haloarenes

    *  Organic Compounds Containing C, H And O

    *  Organic Compounds


    *  Transport in Plants

    *  Mineral Nutrition

    *  Enzymes

    *  Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

    *  Respiration of Plants

    *  Plant Growth and Development

    *  Bacteria

    *  Viruses

    *  Principles of Inheritance and Variation

    *  Molecular Basis of inheritance

    *  Principles and processes of Biotechnology

    *  Biotechnology and its applications

    *  Strategies for enhancement in food production

    *  Microbes in Human Welfare


    *  Digestion and absorption

    *  Breathing and Respiration

    *  Body Fluids and Circulation

    *  Excretory products and their elimination

    *  Muscular and Skeletal system

    *  Neural control and co-ordination

    *  Endocrine system and chemical co-ordination

    *  Immune system

    *  Human Reproductive System

    *  Reproductive Health

    *  Genetics

    *  Organic Evolution

    *  Applied Biology



    *  International Trade

    *  Marketing Systems, Advertising and Consumerism

    *  Business Services

    *  Stock Exchanges

    *  Computer awareness

    *  Bills of Exchange and Depreciation

    *  Consignment

    *  Accounts of Non – Trading Concerns

    *  Accounts from Incomplete Records

    *  Partnership Accounts


    *  Economic Growth And Development

    *  Population and Human Resources Development

    *  National Income

    *  Agriculture Sector

    *  Industrial Sector

    *  Tertiary Sector

    *  Planning And Economic Reforms

    *  Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

    *  Economy Of Andhra Pradesh

    *  Economic Statistics


    *  Motivation

    *  Human Abilities

    *  Social behavior

    *  Groups and Leaderships

    *  Communication Skills

    *  Personality

    *  Issues in contemporary society

    *  Health Psychology


    *  Petrology

    *  Economic Geology

    *  Stratigraphy And Indian Geology

    *  Palaeontology

    *  Public Administration:

    *  Administrative Machinery in India

    *  Planning Machinery in India

    *  Urban Development Administration

    *  Rural Development Administration

    *  Social Welfare Administration

    *  Good Governance

    *  Emerging Trends and Issues in Administration


    *  Social structure of Indian Society

    *  Unity in Diversity

    *  The disadvantaged groups in India

    *  Social Problems

    *  Contemporary Social problems in India

    *  Social Policy & Programmes

    *  Social Skills for Intervention

    *  Civic awareness & Civic responsibility

    Way to Free Download AP Board Syllabus: Open AP Board website and go to Syllabus section. Where you can find your subject or course applied. Kindly save it as a pdf and take printout for future use.

    To know more about AP Board Examination you can directly visit on Official Link. always bring updated and latest information for upcoming exams, syllabus, date sheet, Time table so just keep vising us. Our you can bookmark us too by pressing ctrl plus d. If you have any question can write in to comment box, we will surely try to help you as soon as possible.


  • Annamalai University Exam schedule- Distance Education- Latest Notification

    Latest Notification is announced by Annamalai University for Distance Course which University conducting in May 2016 under Annamalai University DDE Time Table 2016

    B.A. History (Ist Year) Time Table:




    19th May 2016

    Tamil -Poetry And Grammar

    19th May 2016

    Hindi -Prose And Drama

    19th May 2016

    French -Prose-1, Poetry-1, Translation & Grammar

    19th May 2016

    Malayalam -Poetry And Grammar

    19th May 2016

    Telugu -Poetry And Grammar

    19th May 2016

    Kannada -Poetry And Grammar


    20th May 2016

    English -Prose And Composition


    21st May 2016

    General History of India (Ancient Period)

    22nd May 2016

    General History of India (Medieval Period)

    P.G. Diploma Programmes Date Sheet:



    PG Diploma In Materials Management

    24th May 2016

    Purchasing Management

    25th May 2016

    Inventory Management

    26th May 2016

    Stores Management

    27th May 2016

    Transportation And Distribution Management

    PG Diploma In Business Administration

    24th May 2016

    Principles Of Management

    25th May 2016

    Marketing Management

    26th May 2016

    Personnel Management

    27th May 2016

    Financial Management

    M.A. Tamil Date Sheet:



    I Year

    19th May 2016

    Modern Literature

    20th May 2016

    Epic Literature

    21st May 2016

    Grammar – I

    22nd May 2016

    Grammar – II

    23rd May 2016

    History of Tamil Language & History of Literature

    II Year

    24th May 2016

    Sangam Literature

    25th May 2016

    Grammar – III

    26th May 2016

    Grammar – IV

    27th May 2016

    Principles of Comparative Literature

    28th May 2016

    Literary Criticism & Creative Literature

    Master of Business Administration – E-Business (I Year) Date Sheet:



    19th May 2016

    Management Concepts

    20th May 2016

    Marketing Management

    21st May 2016

    Human Resource Management

    22nd May 2016

    Financial And Management Accounting

    23rd May 2016


    24th May 2016

    Database Management System

    25th May 2016

    Management Information System

    26th May 2016

    Software Project Management

    Who wish to check Annamalai University DDE Time Table 2016 can check directly with Official Link.


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